August 4 - October 15
Opening: 3 August 2017
with MELANIE BONAJO, JOHAN GRIMONPREZ, INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL HISTORY, TOMOMI ITAKURA, MARKO MÄETAMM, MIKHAIL KARIKIS, NICOLAS KOZAKIS & RAOUL VANEIGEM, URIEL ORLOW, MARGE MONKOcurated by KATERINA GREGOSSummer of Love, the 2017 exhibition at Art Space Pythagorion, borrows its title from the sociocultural phenomenon that took place fifty years ago in the summer of 1967.1 While in Europe the year 1968 might have more of a legendary status due to the student uprisings in Paris and the Prague Spring, 1967 was in many ways a more significant year in terms of geopolitical, cultural and intellectual developments. It was the year of the Six-Day War, which irrevocably changed the landscape of the Middle East; the effects of this are still being felt today. In Greece, it was the year that marked the beginning of the seven-year military dictatorship. Ironically, it was also the year that the U.K. applied for EEC membership. In the U.S. and all over the world, 1967 also saw the first major political protests by young people against the war in Vietnam. At the same time, the outburst of new popular and subcultural music was one of the defining features of the 'Summer of Love'.2
It was also a year of significant intellectual production. Critical theorist Guy Debord published his Society of the Spectacle, while the Belgian philosopher and key Situationist International member Raoul Vaneigem – who features in this exhibition – published The Revolution of Everyday Life. While Debord's Society of the Spectacle was concerned with how the mechanisms of capital and consumption generate alienation, Vaneigem's book proposed the possibility of revolutionary changes in everyday life. He imagined a new society that 'promotes the participation of everyone in the self-realisation of everyone else', based on '[c]reativity, love and play'.3 In today's regressive climate of fear and xenophobia, Vaneigem's thesis seems ever more pertinent.
The exhibition Summer of Love reflects on this seminal year on its fiftieth anniversary, drawing attention to an era when both the concept of politics and love possessed a real sense of urgency. The 'Summer of Love' was one of the many expressions of the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s. It was an era of civil disobedience, of anti-authoritarianism, of political protest and 'flower power'. Political activism translated into socio-cultural activism, alternative lifestyles (sexual freedom, communes, shared property). Many young people at the time grew up in modest post-war circumstances and didn't care much about money, property or financial success. Young people were politicised. There was hope for a new and different world, filled with love and mutual understanding, which in retrospect might appear idealistic and naïve. Yet, there is perhaps something to be learned if we reflect on this period and compare it to the staunchly individualistic, cutthroat, competitive era of today, where we are all 'atomised'. It is no coincidence that many people who have memories of this era mostly prefer the naïve idealism of then to the heartless cynicism of today.
The exhibition Summer of Love will reflect on the unlikely liaison of love and politics, connecting the summer of 1967 to the world in 2017, where the idea of love in intellectual and political circles is dismissed as simplistic and sentimental. Actually, love is one of the most potent and complex forces of human life. Perhaps the most interesting recent ideas advocating a different understanding of love come from literary theorist and political philosopher Michael Hardt (b. 1960) who advocates a political idea of love.4 Hardt argues that love has to be expanded beyond the limits of the couple, the nuclear family and the psychoanalytic limits of coupling as a force that also contributes to the constitution of community. He credits love for the 'collective transformation' that one experiences in certain kinds of political action. Hardt advocates a form of love that does not originate in a love based on identification with someone or something that is the same as you/us, but a love 'that functions through the play of differences, rather than the insistence on the same'. Criticising the idea of love as a 'merging into one', Hardt advocates love 'as a proliferation of differences, not the destruction of differences. Not merging into unity, but a constructing of constellations among differences, among social differences'.5 As he wrote together with Antonio Negri, in the book Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire:
'People today seem unable to understand love as a political concept, but a concept of love is just what we need to grasp the constituent power of the multitude. The modern concept of love is almost exclusively limited to the bourgeois couple and the claustrophobic confines of the nuclear family. Love has become a strictly private affair. We need a more generous and more unrestrained conception of love'.6
Following on these thoughts, one could argue that there is a lot of love missing from the practice of politics today, which has become a technocratic, administrative bureaucracy furthering the neoliberal agenda. On the other hand, there are also skewed notions of love, 'love gone wrong', as Hardt says, which are manifested in extremist political groups or parties of nationalist and alt-right leanings. One could conceive of politics differently if one imagined love as a more generous, open, inclusive and positive political concept, as Hardt does.
The exhibition Summer of Love draws on these ideas and weaves a web of cultural and historic reference points in order to link the ideas of fifty years ago to the present European crisis, and perhaps to also inspire us to imagine a way out of the current political impasse. It is an opportune moment to do this. Fifty years have gone by; the post-war baby boomers are ageing and dying, and their youthful ideals have largely died out. We might ask: what went wrong, when and why? What lessons can we learn? Should we rethink these ideals? Can we learn from the experiences and disappointments of the generation of 1967? In a world that rapidly seems regressing back to conservative values, it is time to learn from history to avoid making the same mistakes again.
The exhibition will feature the international premiere of the tetralogy of videos by Greek artist Nicolas Kozakis together with the philosopher Raoul Vaneigem, who look at Greece to re-consider contemporary Western values. Vaneigem's transformative ideas from 1967 resonate in the current political climate, while Kozakis' images ask us to consider a different way of living, inspired by a particular kind of 'practice of everyday life' in Greece, that perhaps still has something to teach us in relation to our increasingly frenetic modi operandi. The exhibition will also feature award-winning filmmaker Johan Grimonprez' video Every Day Words Disappear (2016) – an interview with Michael Hardt with found footage from Jean-Luc Godard's Alphaville (1965), in which a computer system has taken control of the city and outlawed concepts like love, poetry and emotion.
Also included will be Tomomi Itakura's Untitled (Signs) (2017), a series of signposts, which juxtaposes key concerns of 1967 and those of 2017, indicating how the world has changed in these fifty years. A series of historical posters from the collection of the International Institute of Social History also speaks of the urgent issues of 1967 – from the anti-Vietnam War movement, to civil rights, apartheid and the Palestinian cause. Uriel Orlow's 2013 work comprising several media, The Short and the Long of It, which has been further developed for this exhibition, relates to the fallout from the 1967 Six-Day War between Israel and neighbouring states. The war left fourteen international cargo ships stranded in the Suez Canal until 1975, when it re-opened. The isolation experienced by the multinational crews of the ships resulted in a form of communal survival and the establishment of a self-contained social system that transcended religious, cultural and linguistic barriers.
One of the key issues in 1967, whose legacy can still be felt today, is that of sexual and gender politics. Melanie Bonajo's film Economy of Love (2015) recalls the radical politics of the 1960s to meditate on issues around sexual liberation and 'free love' today. The video consists of personal accounts by three female sex workers, who see their profession as healers, and is a radical overhaul of the way we perceive them, from a decidedly feminist stance. There are also several new works, commissioned especially for the exhibition, which reflect on the quinquagenary of 1967. Mikhail Karikis has created an environment which functions as a kind of musical and reading lounge featuring iconic vinyl records from 1967, as well as books and essays by influential thinkers writing on love as a political event and a force with revolutionary potential. The records and books can be perused in a colourful sculptural environment, which also functions as a communal seating area. Overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, viewers can be immersed into the words and sounds of 1967. Marko Mäetamm has created a series of images using texts from posters and banners used in protests and demonstrations in 2017, and presents them using visual aesthetics of the 'Summer of Love' posters from 1967, making a link between ideas of community and commonality then and now, and activating cultural memory. Finally, Marge Monko's new wallpaper installation for the exhibition, comprised of photographs and diagrams, looks into the role the contraceptive pill played in women's sexual liberation and the 'free love' movement. The work traces a timeline when countries legalised the pill, looking in particular at the case of France, which did so in 1967.
At a time of increasing regression and conservatism, it seems timely to reflect on the legacy of 1967, which now appears as an unfinished project. Our world, by contrast, is predominantly governed by a mentality of individualism, avidly promoted by capitalism and corporate as well as consumer culture, while a consistent nourishing of xenophobia by nascent right-wing movements drives people to adopt an exclusive rather than inclusive outlook. Seeking to re-discover a lost optimism and find a way to survive within the challenging conditions of their present, a continuously increasing number of people are starting to look back to the ideas and ethos which were brought about during the Summer of 1967 and the 1960s in general. Commonality, sharing, and community mindsets are re-emerging, together with the rebirth of grass-root movements. Crisis-ridden Greece is a good example of this: hundreds of citizens' initiatives have sprung up across the country, providing relief and working on the country's systemic problems in areas like healthcare, education and the environment. Finally, a Greek island in the summer7 – in this case, Samos – is an ideal setting to talk about these issues. Against the backdrop of an economic meltdown and an ongoing crisis, what still seems to be keeping things together is strongly forged social relations in a society that still hasn't been totally atomised. Summer of Love reminds us that it is vital to revisit the values that first came to the forefront fifty years ago if we are to imagine a better future.
1. During the Summer of Love, 100,000 hippies and young people converged on the streets of San Francisco, in the Haight-Ashbury neighbourhood. What united them was a set of anti-authoritarian values: They were suspicious of government, rejected consumerism and opposed the Vietnam War. Some were interested in politics, others in art and alternative lifestyles. The Summer of Love ushered in a wave of liberations and awakenings that changed the way people live.
2. Musically, 1967 was very fruitful, seeing the release of albums such as The Velvet Underground's groundbreaking first album, The Velvet Underground & Nico, and The Jimi Hendrix Experience's debut album, Are You Experienced, while the Beatles released Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which was number one on the albums charts throughout the summer.
3. Raoul Vaneigem (1967), 'Chapter 23: The Unitary Triad: Self-Realisation, Communication and Participation'. In The Revolution of Everyday Life (1967). Available online:
4. Leonard Schwartz (2008/2009), 'A Conversation with Michael Hardt on the Politics of Love', Interval(le)s II.2-III.1 (Fall/Winter).
6. Michael Hardt & Antonio Negri (2004), Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire, New York/London: Penguin Books, p351.
7. Greece and the Greek islands were a favourite European travel destination for hippies in the 1960s. Today, on the island of Samos one can still visit Hippy's beach bar, restaurant and café, situated on Potami beach, where, since the 1960s, locals and campers have enjoyed the Greek lifestyle.